Juan de Mariana, SJ
SPAIN, 1936, the 4th centenary of Mariana's birth,
a local charity stamp issued in the National Zone during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39)
for Talavera de la Reina, Province of Toledo.
The Fortress of Toledo appears above the portrait of Mariana.
The Gálvez Specialized Spanish Stamp Catalog, number 704
Fr. Juan de Mariana, SJ was born in Talavera in 1536 and died in Toledo in 1624. He studied in the University of Alcalá de Henares, where he learned of the recently founded Society of Jesus and entered it in 1554. He continued his studies in the same University, until he was called to Rome by the General Superior of the Order, James Laynez, in 1561. He taught Theology in the Roman College (1562-65) and was rector at Loreto in Messina (1567-69). Sent then to the Jesuit school at Clermont, Paris, he contributed to the renewal of the theology. He returned to Toledo in 1574 and resided in there until his death. As a writer he treated the most diverse philosophical, moral and biblical themes, and is known for his History of Spain (1592).
Mariana proposed a moral justification of tyrannicide, the killing of an unjust king, when no other means to redress his wrongs was possible. This did not sit well with the powers that were in his day, and he did not fare well with them. But the French, it seems, took him seriously and acted on it. For this reason, he is postulated as the reason why the woman in the Phrygian cap, who symbolizes France and has dominated French definitive stamps since her first introduction in 1944, is called Marianne. There are other theories.
The stamps below, indicated with their dates and designers, are the various types in which Marianne has been presented. See Guide philatélique - Les Marianne.
1945 - 54
1955 - 59
1959 - 60
1967 - 69
1971 - 74
1990 - 97
1997 - 2005
2005 - 2008